Beginners FAQs

If you have any questions, please ask. The only stupid question is the one you are too scared to ask. The Cafe Saxophone forum is the ideal place for beginners to ask questions and get helpful answers.

Why does a saxophone squeak?

Squeaks (or “chirps”) are usually caused by a note sounding an overtone or harmonic when you don’t mean it to. Although squeaks can be caused by a bad embouchure, the commonest cause is a malfunctioning reed, mouthpiece or a leaks somewhere. See Saxophone Repairs

What is a leak and how do I fix it?

A leak happens when something on the saxophone such as pad closing is not an airtight seal. The symptoms are squeaking (see above) or notes not sounding properly and generally a feeling of resistance. A good indication of a leaking saxophone is when you suddenly find you can no longer play a low note pianissimo.

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What is the best saxophone to buy?

Tough Question. It used to be that the best student instruments were made by Yamaha and Jupiter, this is now changing and there are now many other good makes available at a very reasonable price, but you should beware: although some are extremely good, many are very bad. It is best to get a teacher or experienced player to test the saxophone before buying it. Don’t be tempted by the $9 – $200 saxophones on eBay from the far east, it may cost more to return for a refund than the saxophone is worth, even if you can get a refund.

If you buy a saxophone via mail order you should take it to a good repair person to check it over and set it up to play properly.However there have recently been some extremely good saxophones from China and Taiwan, but it’s worth paying just a little bit extra to buy from an online store with a guarantee and no quibble returns policy than many of the eBay sellers. You should also expect the saxophone to need a little setting up by a repairer (same applies even to top of that range horns bought via mail order) and probably a better mouthpiece, e.g. Yamaha 3C or 4C) See: Saxophone Buying Guide | Saxophone Reviews | Recommendations

How should I organise practice sessions?

It’s a good idea to practise in several short concentrated sessions rather than one long session in which your mind is wandering. Unless you can train yourself to concentrate for long periods of time, try splitting your practice sessions into three roughly equal parts:

  1. Technique (scales, arpeggios, patterns)
  2. Sound (Tone exercises)
  3. Tunes & improvisation (This can include just noodling around)

It might be useful to just do 5 or 10 minutes of each then take a break and come back to it. The important thing is to stop practising once you lose concentration: less time spent on concentrated practice is better than more time spent practising when your mind is on other things. See: How to practice

What strength reeds should I use?

This often depends on the mouthpiece. Generally a mouthpiece with a wide tip opening needs softer reeds than one with a narrow opening. Some people use harder reeds (3.5 – 5) to get a louder sound, however with practice and proper use of the diaphragm it is also possible to play loud on softer reeds, with the added advantage that you will get more flexibility of tone. Wide vibrato and note bending becomes easier. I use 2.5 reeds with a 125 RPC tenor mouthpiece. See: Saxophone Reeds

Should I put my bottom lip over my teeth?

It depends on the person. There will be different opinions about what you are “supposed to do”. It would be best for you as soon as possible to get a good teacher, who can understand both the finer points of the way you wish to play/sound, as well as being able to help you adapt “correct technique” to your individual requirements based on your physical makeup. A good teacher will look at your jaw structure (eg is there an overbite or underbite?), teeth size and shape, possibly also the dimensions and position of tongue, etc. My preference is to either push the lower lip forward, or have it vertically upwards in front of the teeth (not over them) for harder and edgier styles/sound. Both of these techniques require careful building up of the lip muscles. See: Saxophone Embouchure

What is the best mouthpiece?

I believe the best mouthpieces for beginners and intermediate are Yamaha (standard) or Fobes Debut. On tenor a slightly larger tip is better, so I would say for alto a Yamaha 4c, but tenor a 5c. Once you get to know a bit more about your set-up however it might be worth trying some other mouthpieces. Our own PPT brand are not really suitable for absolute beginners although the alto 5* is a very good upgrade from a 4c or Fobes. See: Saxophone Mouthpieces

How far on the cork should the mouthpiece be?

Far enough on for the saxophone to be in tune. Don’t worry if the mouthpiece needs to be pushed right on the cork (provided it doesn’t interfere with the octave key on the neck) , or is close to the end (provided it isn’t dropping off and there is no possible leak if it is too loose on the cork). The actual amount may vary even on the same saxophone if you try different mouthpieces.

What is the best ligature?

Very often the one that comes with the mouthpiece. Some people think that the ligature can affect the sound. I’ve never noticed this if the ligature is working properly, though one of the flexible type ligatures will sound better than a distorted or ill fitting solid metal type. If the table is concave (or heaven forbid) convex, or if the reed is warped, then some ligatures will work better than others with those specific parameters, and may therefore give you the impression that ligature A is generally better than ligature B, or that each ligature has its own “sound.” See Saxophone Ligatures and this short video

Does lacquer or plating on a saxophone affect the sound?

Probably not at all. The material a saxophone is made from has very little bearing on the character of the sound. Small changes in bore size are much more likely to affect the way that the air vibrates in the saxophone. Different materials may have a more substantial effect on the sound of the mouthpiece. See: Does Material Matter?

How do I stop pads sticking?

Unless the pad or tone hole has a serious problem, common or garden sticking pad syndrome can be cured by application of lighter fluid. Do not use talcum powder, WD 40, or any proprietary remedy, many of which are rip-offs and will only cure the symptoms temporarily, while making the problem worse in the long run.

Sometimes it is necessary to strengthen the spring. You can make your own tool for this: break the lead off a pencil and use it to hook the spring out and retention it, but if in doubt get a qualified repairer for this.

Why is a saxophone woodwind, when it is made out of brass?

Due to changes in instrument technology, the terms for categories of instruments such as woodwind or brass no longer refer to the material. Originally woodwind instruments were all made of wood, but the more important defining factor was the method of sound production, which involves a vibrating reed. (Yes, even on a flute the lip/tonehole edge are actually acting as a reed).

It was discovered that wood was not the defining factor in the sound, and at some stage both flutes and clarinets started to be made from brass with very little (if any) difference in sound. Metal clarinets are quite rare today, but were very useful for military bands in countries that had hot or humid climates that would cause wood to crack.
Brass instruments have a different type of tone production, which involves “buzzing” the lips into a cup shaped mouthpiece. Again, they do not need to be made from brass – the earliest forms of brass instruments were made from animal horns.

These days both woodwind and brass instruments are made from other types of metal and plastic, but they still keep their characteristic sound due to the tone production process.

Saxophone Beginners Starter pack
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In the Beginners section:

  • Beginners Instruction DVD

    In this program, Pete introduces beginners to the alto saxophone: the parts of the saxophone and how to assemble them, fitting the reed, posture and breathing, saxophone embouchure, holding and blowing into the saxophone, tuning, fingering, notes and intervals, tonguing and slurring, bending notes and vibrato, the rudiments of reading music and keeping time, scales, triad arpeggios, how to improvise ... Read more…
  • Saxophone Studies

    The Taming The Saxophone Series of Studies Taming the Saxophone is a series of saxophone tutorials (there are more books, videos and DVDs planned). When you buy Taming The Saxophone Volume 2 you will also get special membership to private pages, extra resources etc. Volume 1 Tone without tears, no more boring long notes Beginners to Advanced Exercises to improve your saxophone sound, interesting long notes, vibrato, dynamics, overtones, ... Read more…
  • Learn to Play Saxophone

    How to assemble your saxophone – making a sound fingering a few notes and playing your first tune. Everything you need to know to get started on the road to being a saxophone player. Read more…
  • First Notes on the Saxophone

    For Absolute Beginners In this section on beginners saxophone we look specifically at useful stuff for beginners, but don’t be scared of delving into the other pages. Some may be a bit advanced but others can be very useful – especially the tone section. Extract from DVD: First Notes Your browser does not support the video tag. Lesson 1 – “Oh No, Not Boring Scales!” Yes, ... Read more…
  • Saxophone Transposition

    Why am I in a different key to the rest of the band? This is a very common question, especially from anyone who has just bought a saxophone, taught themselves a little bit and then decides to play along with some other musicians. It can be a big shock to discover that the piano player, guitarist, bass player are all ... Read more…
  • Fingering Charts

    Basic Fingering charts (no sharps or flats) First we have a couple of very basic fingering charts which show you the saxophone fingerings for the lower and upper register in the key of C. These are ideal for absolute beginners who don’t want to be overwhelmed by the entire chart of all fingerings. Of course, because the saxophone is a transposing instrument, ... Read more…
  • Find a Saxophone Teacher

    The best one for you Is the teacher a great player? A good teacher is not necessarily a great player, and conversely a great player could be a lousy teacher. The important thing is not just that the teacher can communicate, but that they communicate with you. Some teachers may be good with children, others with adults. First impressions are often very ... Read more…
  • Rhythm & Blues Saxophone

    Defining Rhythm & Blues As with so many genres, R & B was originally a 1940s marketing term and referred to dance music marketed ostensibly to a black audience. Before the term was coined, this music was referred to as race music which became a politically incorrect term. R & B grew out of various styles, including boogie woogie and the ... Read more…
  • Rock & Roll Saxophone

    How to Play a Great Rockin’ Solo Many jazz saxophonists think that it’s easy to knock off a rock and roll solo, and then wonder why nobody likes it: neither a jazz audience nor a rock audience. However the concept behind it is the same. Good rock & roll is not just a string of minor blues scales or a bunch ... Read more…
  • How to Organise Your Practice Schedule

    Best Practice! As a teacher I used to devise a different practice schedule for each student as different people have different requirements when practising the saxophone, so the following is quite general and may not suit everyone. However there is one key element for a successful and efficient practise routine, that is concentration. To learn the saxophone it is important to be ... Read more…
  • Stage Fright & Performance Nerves

    Scared To Go On Stage? There’s Nothing Wrong with a Bit of Fear We’ve all had stage fright at some time. Some of the very best performers have it all the time, but learn to cope with it or even use it to their advantage. Fear of going on stage is extremely common, most professional performers agree that not only does stage ... Read more…
  • Saxophone Video Lessons

    Pete’s video lessons To leave comments on the Youtube channel please click on the Youtube icon at the bottom RH corner of each video. Or visit the TamingTheSaxophone Youtube Channel for more.  Video Overview of Beginners Instruction DVD: This should give you a good idea of what you will get when you buy the DVD for beginners. This is from the acclaimed Jools Holland Music ... Read more…
  • Memorising Music

    Memorisation, whether it’s totally committing something to memory, or used to help with (sight) reading tricky music, can be seen as two almost separate techniques: Randomness and patterns. Memorising random bits of information is the hardest, for example if you can’t speak English, memorising a sentence is difficult because it’s just a collection of different words, but if you speak the language, ... Read more…

In the Beginners Impro Section:

  • Beginners’ Impro TTS Vol 2

    About Beginners’ Impro In this section of the site we expand on some of the material in the book, Taming The Saxophone vol2.  Some of the pages in this section of the site include the basic sheet music of the tunes, ie “leadsheets” but when you buy the book you will also receive a download with printable leadsheets, audio (mp3), performance ... Read more…
  • Beginners Scales

    The 12 Step Scale Chart Use this chart to visualise how a scale is made up of whole tones or half tones (aka tones & semitones). You can click on the Buttons to move forward/backward through the different scales. For example to quickly understand the difference between a major and minor, click on “Major”, then “Minor” (Melodic or harmonic”   As you learn the ... Read more…
  • Chords For Beginners

    Here is a very simple lesson in the beginnings of harmony. As you probably know, there are 7 notes in a major scale. In C these are C, D, E, F, G, A and B. We number these 1 to 7, often with roman numerals instead of note names, which makes it easier to think about this in any key. Read more…
  • Rock & Blues

    SOTW Blues has moved here Rock & Roll (& Blues) for Beginners I Although you might think that theory and rock or blues playing don’t have much in common, it’s surprising how useful a bit of basic music training can be when learning any style of music, however much that style relies an a “feel”. I have met many great rock ... Read more…
  • Chords and Numerals

    Why assign numbers to chords? If you have read part 1 of TTS vol 2 you should know how we use different types of numbers to help us understand about chords and chord sequences. This page gives you a visual explanation/reminder of the relationship between the chord note numbers (arabic numerals) and the function of the chord itself within the key (roman ... Read more…
  • Special Chords

    Beyond Triads We will call these “special chords” as they don’t quite fit into the method of chord construction we have learned so far, but really they aren’t that special so don’t be scared of them. Up until now we have been constructing chords by counting up the scale form the root of the chord, and leaving out every other note. ... Read more…
  • Voicing & Inversions

    A quick recap about chords We learned in the book that chords are two or more notes played together. We know how chords are constructed, that they are derived from scales by counting up alternate notes: 1 – 3 – 5 – 7 We also know that chords are used for two main purposes: Chords in the backing music This is the music you play along ... Read more…
  • Beginners Tunes >>>

    Full sheet music (PDF), Audio files and more in Vol 2 Taming The Saxophone – Beginners Impro Minor Chords Im IVm & Vm (Gorilla) This exercise looks at how to work on the key scale and chords for the first tune in the Volume 2, Gorilla. Youn will find many songs that are similar so this can be very useful You can take ... Read more…


Beginners FAQs
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